Determining the last survivor of pre-20th century conflicts has long been an iffy proposition.
Birth registration in some US states, for example, did not begin until the 1920s, and a number of individuals who claimed to be the last surviving Confederate soldiers in their respective Southern states were nearly all later shown by census records to almost certainly have been born too late to have actually served in the 1861-65 conflict.
Even more problematic is determining the last veterans of the Revolutionary War. The US didn’t begin its national census until 1790 and it was a far leaner affair than that of today, with questioners seeking little more than the name of the head of household, their address and the number of other residents broken down by a handful of categories (free white males over 16, free white females, slaves, etc.). Not exactly a wealth of knowledge.
If one wanted to try to game the system to secure a veteran’s pension, there were no Social Security numbers, birth certificates or computerized records to overcome. One suspects a good story and a couple of willing accomplices willing to verify said story was all that was needed.
That said, the last generally accepted veteran of the American Revolution is Daniel Bakeman, who claimed to have served for a New York militia unit. Born in 1759, Bakeman died in 1869, at age 109.
Bakeman had no tangible proof of his service, stating that he had lost it in a fire earlier in his life. Of course, fires were a regular occurrence in pre-20th century America, so it’s quite possible that Bakeman was so victimized.
It appears that the last 10 or so men accepted as final surviving American veterans of the American Revolution came from northern states and/or died in northern states.
This is not surprising giving that when the final Revolutionary War vets were enjoying their last hurrah, the US Civil War was either taking place or the South was under Reconstruction, making it unlikely that historians or US government officials would be searching for Revolutionary War veterans in the South, or that Southern veterans would be applying for pensions.
Because a considerable part of the war was fought in the South, particularly in the latter years of the Revolution, and the war in the South often was a more informal affair, with an emphasis on guerilla fighting, meaning there was proportionately higher participation among the population, albeit not always on the American side, it’s almost certain that some War of Independence veterans in the south were overlooked.
One of these last survivors was Bob Wheeler, a former slave who died on Sept. 16, 1866, at age 107.
According to an Oct. 9, 1866, story in the Columbia Phoenix, “During the Revolution, Bob was a boy between sixteen and eighteen years of age, and as his memory and mind remained unimpaired, he delighted to tell of his recollections of the old Revolution when the red coats were the terror of every neighborhood. He was for some time a waiting boy for Gen. Wade Hampton.”
That would be Wade Hampton I (1752-1835), grandfather of Wade Hampton III, the Confederate cavalry commander and later SC governor and US senator.
Hampton served in the American Revolution as a lieutenant colonel in an SC cavalry regiment, and he later led US troops in the War of 1812.
Wheeler considered the first Wade Hampton “the next greatest man to Geo. Washington, and during his whole life had a great veneration and respect for the Hampton family,” the Phoenix reported. “When he heard of the promotion and success of our worthy and beloved (Confederate) Gen. Wade Hampton, the old man’s eyes would kindle, and he would stand almost on tiptoe, rejoicing at his achievements, saying that ‘the true old blood would show itself.’”
When the first Wade Hampton died, he was “left by his master’s will to help to support his three daughters,” the paper stated. “This duty he discharged faithfully and honestly.”
Wheeler died near Pomaria, SC, in today’s Newberry County. His burial site is unknown.
(Top: Hampton-Preston Mansion, Columbia, SC, owned by Wade Hampton I from 1823 until his death in 1835. In later years it hosted such luminaries as presidents Millard Fillmore and Franklin Pierce, and Senator Daniel Webster.)
9 thoughts on “Ex-slave was among final Revolutionary War participants”
Interesting. My mother, a genealogist, spent a great deal of time transcribing the 1850 census of Georgia from microfilm to computer, as well as visiting courthouses around Georgia in search of various ancestors. She used to complain that many early records were burned when General Sherman burned his 60-mile-wide swath through Georgia in the War of Northern Aggression.
No doubt; Sherman and his men spared little in their orgy of destruction. I often wonder what happened to all the loot that the Federal soldiers took away from Georgia and South Carolina – talk about a transfer of wealth.
It is the nature of war to loot the enemy. Julius Caesar promised his soldiers great looting, plundering, and slaves on their conquering sprees. Of course armies need food and other supplies, too, so tend to collect them along the way.
I am reading Wendy Warren’s “New England Bound” which describes in exacting detail the bondage in which the earliest of the Pilgrim Fathers laid upon indigenous people they encountered in what is now New England… and little later their near descendants translated that into owning Africans. The white man – wherever he went – left a trail of bondage.
Unfortunately, man (white or otherwise) generally left a trail of bondage wherever he went, or, in many cases, where he already was. I think many today fail to comprehend that slavery was an all-too unfortunate reality in much of the world up until the 19th century. We are not a very compassionate species, in general.
Thanks for your note. I will have to look up Warren’s book; it looks very interesting.
Excellent and interesting article. Thanks.
Thank you, Bruce. I always appreciate your kind words.
Do you mind if I put it on Google+? I’m in an ACW community there?
I’d be flattered, Bruce. Thanks much.